Climate, soil type, and geographic distribution of actinomycetoma cases in Northeast Mexico: A cross-sectional study

Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous infection of subcutaneous tissue, that may involve deep structures and bone. It can be caused by bacteria (actinomycetoma) or fungi (eumycetoma). There is an epidemiological association between mycetoma and the environment, including rainfall, temperature and humidity but there are still many knowledge gaps in the identification of the natural habitat of actinomycetes, their primary reservoir, and their precise geographical distribution.

Knowing the potential distribution of this infection and its ecological niche in endemic areas is relevant to determine disease management strategies and etiological agent habitat or reservoirs.This was an ambispective descriptive study of 31 patients with actinomycetoma.

We determined the biophysical characteristics including temperature, precipitation, soil type, vegetation, etiological agents, and mapped actinomycetoma cases in Northeast Mexico. We identified two disease cluster areas. One in Nuevo Leon, with a predominantly kastanozems soil type, with a mean annual temperature of 22°, and a mean annual precipitation of 585.2 mm.

Herein, mycetoma cases were produced by Actinomadura pelletieri, Actinomadura madurae, Nocardia brasiliensis, and Nocardia spp. The second cluster was in San Luis Potosí, where lithosols soil type predominates, with a mean annual temperature of 23.5° and a mean annual precipitation of 635.4 mm. In this area, all the cases were caused by N. brasiliensis. A.

madurae cases were identified in rendzinas, kastanozems, vertisols, and lithosols soils, and A. pelletieri cases in xerosols, kastanozems, and rendzinas soils. Previous thorn trauma with Acacia or Prosopis plants was referred by 35.4% of subjects. In these states, the presence of thorny plants, such as Acacia spp.,

AC-PEG-AC

abx085037-1kDa1g 1 kDa; 1 g
EUR 328.00
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

AC-PEG-AC

abx085037-20kDa1g 20 kDa; 1 g
EUR 328.00
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Ac-GPK(Ac)-pNA

5-00556 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-Tyr(Ac)-OH

5-03625 25g Ask for price

Ac-Tyr(Ac)-OH

5-03626 100g Ask for price

Ac-Lys(Ac)-OH

E-1775.0001 1.0g
EUR 126.00
Description: Sum Formula: C10H18N2O4; CAS# [499-86-5]

Ac-Lys(Ac)-OH

E-1775.0005 5.0g
EUR 418.00
Description: Sum Formula: C10H18N2O4; CAS# [499-86-5]

AC-PEG-AC,10K

33-HO009009-10K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

AC-PEG-AC,1K

33-HO009009-1K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

AC-PEG-AC,20K

33-HO009009-20K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

AC-PEG-AC,2K

33-HO009009-2K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

AC-PEG-AC,3.4K

33-HO009009-3.4K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

AC-PEG-AC,5K

33-HO009009-5K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

Acylase (1000 U/mg material), Porcine kidney

AC-01 2 gm
EUR 408.00

Acylase (2000 U/mg material), Porcine kidney

AC-02 2 gm
EUR 408.00

SmartBlue

E4000-AC 1 PC
EUR 96.32
  • To order instruments in 115V / US plug please delete the 'E' off the order code.European 2 pin plugs will be supplied as standard, please request UK if required.

Ac-GPK(Ac)-Pna [Ac-Gly-Pro-Lys(Ac)pNA; MW:504.5]

SP-52003-25 25 mg
EUR 1085.00

Ac-DL-Lys(Ac)-OH

F-3205.0001 1.0g
EUR 139.00
Description: Sum Formula: C10H18N2O4; CAS# [35436-74-9]

Ac-DL-Lys(Ac)-OH

F-3205.0005 5.0g
EUR 477.00
Description: Sum Formula: C10H18N2O4; CAS# [35436-74-9]

Ac-Arg-Gly-Lys(Ac)-AMC

I-1925.0005 5.0mg
EUR 273.00
Description: Sum Formula: C28H40N8O7; CAS# [660846-97-9] net

Ac-Arg-Gly-Lys(Ac)-AMC

I-1925.0025 25.0mg
EUR 998.00
Description: Sum Formula: C28H40N8O7; CAS# [660846-97-9] net

Ac-Gly-Ala-Lys(Ac)-AMC

I-1975.0005 5.0mg
EUR 273.00
Description: Sum Formula: C25H33N5O7; CAS# [577969-56-3]

Ac-Gly-Ala-Lys(Ac)-AMC

I-1975.0025 25.0mg
EUR 998.00
Description: Sum Formula: C25H33N5O7; CAS# [577969-56-3]

Ac-Glutamine [Ac-Gln (MW: 188.18)]

SP-86674-5 5 mg
EUR 164.00

Ac-Pepstatin

5-00564 10mg Ask for price

Ac-Glutamine

5-00569 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-Osu

5-02107 100g Ask for price

Ac-Osu

5-02108 500g Ask for price

AC-55541

9412-25
EUR 414.00

AC-55541

9412-5
EUR 142.00

AC 55541

A8669-10 10 mg
EUR 293.00
Description: AC 55541 is a potent agonist of PAR2 with pEC50 value of 6.7 and functions range from 200 to 1000 nM [1-3].

AC 55541

A8669-25 25 mg
EUR 598.00
Description: AC 55541 is a potent agonist of PAR2 with pEC50 value of 6.7 and functions range from 200 to 1000 nM [1-3].

AC 55541

A8669-5 5 mg
EUR 196.00
Description: AC 55541 is a potent agonist of PAR2 with pEC50 value of 6.7 and functions range from 200 to 1000 nM [1-3].

AC 264613

A8670-10 10 mg
EUR 340.00
Description: AC 264613 is a potent agonist of PAR2 with pEC50 value of 7.5 and potencies range from 30 to 100 nM [1, 2].

AC 264613

A8670-50 50 mg
EUR 1276.00
Description: AC 264613 is a potent agonist of PAR2 with pEC50 value of 7.5 and potencies range from 30 to 100 nM [1, 2].

AC antibody

70R-1978 50 ug
EUR 467.00
Description: Rabbit polyclonal AC antibody raised against the N terminal Of Ac

mPEG-AC

abx085017-10kDa1g 10 kDa; 1 g
EUR 370.00
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mPEG-AC

abx085017-1kDa1g 1 kDa; 1 g
EUR 356.00
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mPEG-AC

abx085017-20kDa1g 20 kDa; 1 g
EUR 370.00
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mPEG-AC

abx085017-5kDa1g 5 kDa; 1 g
EUR 356.00
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AC 45594

B7252-10 10 mg
EUR 226.00
Description: AC 45594 is a full inverse agonist of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) with an IC50 value of 50~100 nM [1].SF-1 is a constitutively nuclear hormone receptor. It is essential to the development of gonadal and adrenal glands.

AC 45594

B7252-50 50 mg
EUR 689.00
Description: AC 45594 is a full inverse agonist of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) with an IC50 value of 50~100 nM [1].SF-1 is a constitutively nuclear hormone receptor. It is essential to the development of gonadal and adrenal glands.

AC 261066

B7574-10 10 mg
EUR 373.00
Description: AC 261066 is an agonist of retinoic acid receptor subtype ? isoform 2 (RAR?2) [1] [2]. It is also called UVI2062 [3]. AC 261066 exhibited good oral bioavailability in rats (Foral= 52%) [4].

AC 261066

B7574-50 50 mg
EUR 1363.00
Description: AC 261066 is an agonist of retinoic acid receptor subtype ? isoform 2 (RAR?2) [1] [2]. It is also called UVI2062 [3]. AC 261066 exhibited good oral bioavailability in rats (Foral= 52%) [4].

AC 187

B5424-.5 500 ug
EUR 551.00
Description: Amylin is a 37-amino acid peptide co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic ?-ells. The plasma concentration of amyline increases with nutrient stimuli.

9-AC

B6525-100 100 mg
EUR 145.00

AC 55649

B7052-10 10 mg
EUR 268.00
Description: AC 55649 is a potent and selective agonist of retinoic acid receptor ?2 (RAR?2) isotype with a pEC50 value of 6.9 ± 0.4 [1]. RAR?2 is a tumor suppressor gene. In several human neoplasms, it is frequently hypermethylated [2].

AC 55649

B7052-50 50 mg
EUR 973.00
Description: AC 55649 is a potent and selective agonist of retinoic acid receptor ?2 (RAR?2) isotype with a pEC50 value of 6.9 ± 0.4 [1]. RAR?2 is a tumor suppressor gene. In several human neoplasms, it is frequently hypermethylated [2].

Soyasaponin Ac

TBW00154 5mg
EUR 634.00

AC-55649

HY-108526 5mg
EUR 187.00

AC-55541

HY-14350 10mM/1mL
EUR 175.00

Ac-Lys(Ac)-D-Ala-D-Ala-OH

M-1325.0050 50.0mg
EUR 273.00
Description: Sum Formula: C16H28N4O6; CAS# [24570-39-6]

Ac-Lys(Ac)-D-Ala-D-Ala-OH

M-1325.0250 250.0mg
EUR 998.00
Description: Sum Formula: C16H28N4O6; CAS# [24570-39-6]

Ac-Lys(Ac)-D-Ala-D-lactic acid

M-1330.0050 50.0mg
EUR 393.00
Description: Sum Formula: C16H27N3O7; CAS# [65882-12-4]

Ac-Lys(Ac)-D-Ala-D-lactic acid

M-1330.0250 250.0mg
EUR 1482.00
Description: Sum Formula: C16H27N3O7; CAS# [65882-12-4]

Ac- a-Endorphin

5-00540 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-D-E

5-00553 24 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-GPK-pNA

5-00555 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-IEAR-pNA

5-00559 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-IETD-pNA

5-00560 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-LEHD-pNA

5-00561 4 x 1mg Ask for price

Ac-g-Endorphin

5-00568 4 x 1mg Ask for price

Ac-RYYRIK-NH2

5-00572 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-VEID-pNA

5-00574 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-YVAD-pNA

5-00575 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-HMBA-linker

5-02191 5g Ask for price

Ac-HMBA-linker

5-02192 25g Ask for price

Ac-Ala-OH

5-02327 5g Ask for price

Ac-Ala-OH

5-02328 25g Ask for price

Ac-Ala-OMe

5-02329 25g Ask for price

Ac-Ala-OMe

5-02330 100g Ask for price

Ac-Arg-OH

5-02405 100g Ask for price

Ac-Arg-OH

5-02406 500g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OH

5-02509 5g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OH

5-02510 25g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OBzl

5-02511 5g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OBzl

5-02512 25g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OtBu

5-02513 5g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OtBu

5-02514 25g Ask for price

Ac-Cys-OH

5-02601 25g Ask for price

Ac-Cys-OH

5-02602 100g Ask for price

Ac-Gln-OH

5-02647 25g Ask for price

Ac-Gln-OH

5-02648 100g Ask for price

Ac-Gln-OtBu

5-02649 25g Ask for price

Ac-Gln-OtBu

5-02650 100g Ask for price

Ac-Gly-OH

5-02859 100g Ask for price

Ac-Gly-OH

5-02860 500g Ask for price

Ac-Gly-OEt

5-02861 25g Ask for price

Ac-Gly-OEt

5-02862 100g Ask for price

Ac-D-Octylglycine

5-02863 100g Ask for price

Ac-D-Octylglycine

5-02864 500g Ask for price

Ac-His-OH·H2O

5-02905 5g Ask for price

Ac-His-OH·H2O

5-02906 25g Ask for price

Ac-Ile-OH

5-02933 25g Ask for price

Ac-Ile-OH

5-02934 100g Ask for price

Ac-Ile-OMe

5-02935 5g Ask for price

Ac-Ile-OMe

5-02936 25g Ask for price

Ac-Leu-OH

5-02985 25g Ask for price

Ac-Leu-OH

5-02986 50g Ask for price

Ac-Lys-OH

5-03111 5g Ask for price

Ac-Lys-OH

5-03112 25g Ask for price

Ac-Met-OH

5-03159 5g Ask for price

Ac-Met-OH

5-03160 25g Ask for price

Ac-Met-OMe

5-03161 1g Ask for price

Ac-Met-OMe

5-03162 5g Ask for price

Ac-Phe-OH

5-03253 25g Ask for price

Ac-Phe-OH

5-03254 100g Ask for price

Ac-Phe-NH2

5-03255 25g Ask for price

Ac-Phe-NH2

5-03256 100g Ask for price

Ac-Pro-OH

5-03331 5g Ask for price

Ac-Pro-OH

5-03332 25g Ask for price

Ac-Trp-OH

5-03535 25g Ask for price

Ac-Trp-OH

5-03536 100g Ask for price

Ac-Trp-OMe

5-03537 25g Ask for price

Ac-Trp-OMe

5-03538 100g Ask for price

Ac-Trp-OEt

5-03539 5g Ask for price

Ac-Trp-OEt

5-03540 25g Ask for price

Ac-Trp-NH2

5-03541 25g Ask for price

Ac-Trp-NH2

5-03542 100g Ask for price

Ac-Tyr-OH

5-03619 100g Ask for price

Ac-Tyr-OH

5-03620 250g Ask for price

Ac-Tyr-OEt·H2O

5-03621 5g Ask for price

Ac-Tyr-OEt·H2O

5-03622 25g Ask for price

Ac-Tyr-OMe

5-03623 100g Ask for price

Ac-Tyr-OMe

5-03624 500g Ask for price

Ac-Tyr-NH2

5-03629 1g Ask for price

Ac-Tyr-NH2

5-03630 5g Ask for price

Ac-Val-OH

5-03695 25g Ask for price

Ac-Val-OH

5-03696 100g Ask for price

Ac-Nle-OH

5-05003 5g Ask for price

Ac-Nle-OH

5-05004 25g Ask for price

Ac-Nva-OH

5-05041 5g Ask for price

Ac-Nva-OH

5-05042 25g Ask for price

Ac-Orn-OH

5-05083 25g Ask for price

Ac-Orn-OH

5-05084 100g Ask for price

Ac-IEPD-AFC

A4418-5 5 mg
EUR 324.00
Description: Peptide sequence shown to be preferred recognition motif for the serine protease granzyme B. Fluorogenic substrate.

Ac-LEHD-AFC

A4419-10 10 mg
EUR 355.00
Description: Fluorogenic caspase substrate. Analog of the caspase-9 substrate, LEHD-AFC.

Ac-LEHD-AFC

A4419-5 5 mg
EUR 216.00
Description: Fluorogenic caspase substrate. Analog of the caspase-9 substrate, LEHD-AFC.

Ac-His-OH

A6755-100000 100 g
EUR 337.00
Description: Ac-His-OH

Ac-His-OH

A6755-25000 25 g
EUR 193.00
Description: Ac-His-OH

Prosopis spp., Senegalia greggi, Vachellia farnesiana and Vachellia rigidula, are common.Mapping this neglectedtropical infection aids in the detection of disease cluster areas, the development of public health strategies for early diagnosis and disease prediction models; this paves the way for more ecological niche etiological agent research.