Climate, soil type, and geographic distribution of actinomycetoma cases in Northeast Mexico: A cross-sectional study

Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous infection of subcutaneous tissue, that may involve deep structures and bone. It can be caused by bacteria (actinomycetoma) or fungi (eumycetoma). There is an epidemiological association between mycetoma and the environment, including rainfall, temperature and humidity but there are still many knowledge gaps in the identification of the natural habitat of actinomycetes, their primary reservoir, and their precise geographical distribution.

Knowing the potential distribution of this infection and its ecological niche in endemic areas is relevant to determine disease management strategies and etiological agent habitat or reservoirs.This was an ambispective descriptive study of 31 patients with actinomycetoma.

We determined the biophysical characteristics including temperature, precipitation, soil type, vegetation, etiological agents, and mapped actinomycetoma cases in Northeast Mexico. We identified two disease cluster areas. One in Nuevo Leon, with a predominantly kastanozems soil type, with a mean annual temperature of 22°, and a mean annual precipitation of 585.2 mm.

Herein, mycetoma cases were produced by Actinomadura pelletieri, Actinomadura madurae, Nocardia brasiliensis, and Nocardia spp. The second cluster was in San Luis Potosí, where lithosols soil type predominates, with a mean annual temperature of 23.5° and a mean annual precipitation of 635.4 mm. In this area, all the cases were caused by N. brasiliensis. A.

madurae cases were identified in rendzinas, kastanozems, vertisols, and lithosols soils, and A. pelletieri cases in xerosols, kastanozems, and rendzinas soils. Previous thorn trauma with Acacia or Prosopis plants was referred by 35.4% of subjects. In these states, the presence of thorny plants, such as Acacia spp.,

AC-PEG-AC

abx085037-20kDa1g 20 kDa; 1 g
EUR 328

Ac-GPK(Ac)-pNA

5-00556 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-Tyr(Ac)-OH

5-03625 25g Ask for price

Ac-Tyr(Ac)-OH

5-03626 100g Ask for price

AC-PEG-AC,10K

33-HO009009-10K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

AC-PEG-AC,1K

33-HO009009-1K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

AC-PEG-AC,20K

33-HO009009-20K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

AC-PEG-AC,2K

33-HO009009-2K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

AC-PEG-AC,3.4K

33-HO009009-3.4K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

AC-PEG-AC,5K

33-HO009009-5K
  • EUR 167.00
  • EUR 399.00
  • 1g
  • 5g
Description: A high purity chemical with various applications in medical research, drug-release, nanotechnology and new materials research, cell culture. In the study of ligand, polypeptide synthesis support, a graft polymer compounds, new materials, and polyethylene glycol-modified functional coatings and other aspects of the active compound.

Ac-Lys(Ac)-OH

E-1775.0001 1.0g
EUR 126
Description: Sum Formula: C10H18N2O4; CAS# [499-86-5]

Ac-Lys(Ac)-OH

E-1775.0005 5.0g
EUR 418
Description: Sum Formula: C10H18N2O4; CAS# [499-86-5]

SmartBlue

E4000-AC 1 PC
EUR 96.32

Acylase (1000 U/mg material), Porcine kidney

AC-01 2 gm
EUR 408

Acylase (2000 U/mg material), Porcine kidney

AC-02 2 gm
EUR 408

Ac-GPK(Ac)-Pna [Ac-Gly-Pro-Lys(Ac)pNA; MW:504.5]

SP-52003-25 25 mg
EUR 1085

Ac-DL-Lys(Ac)-OH

F-3205.0001 1.0g
EUR 139
Description: Sum Formula: C10H18N2O4; CAS# [35436-74-9]

Ac-DL-Lys(Ac)-OH

F-3205.0005 5.0g
EUR 477
Description: Sum Formula: C10H18N2O4; CAS# [35436-74-9]

Ac-Arg-Gly-Lys(Ac)-AMC

I-1925.0005 5.0mg
EUR 273
Description: Sum Formula: C28H40N8O7; CAS# [660846-97-9] net

Ac-Arg-Gly-Lys(Ac)-AMC

I-1925.0025 25.0mg
EUR 998
Description: Sum Formula: C28H40N8O7; CAS# [660846-97-9] net

Ac-Gly-Ala-Lys(Ac)-AMC

I-1975.0005 5.0mg
EUR 273
Description: Sum Formula: C25H33N5O7; CAS# [577969-56-3]

Ac-Gly-Ala-Lys(Ac)-AMC

I-1975.0025 25.0mg
EUR 998
Description: Sum Formula: C25H33N5O7; CAS# [577969-56-3]

Ac-Glutamine [Ac-Gln (MW: 188.18)]

SP-86674-5 5 mg
EUR 164

AC-55541

9412-25
EUR 414

AC-55541

9412-5
EUR 142

Soyasaponin Ac

TBW00154 5mg
EUR 634

AC-186

B2980-1 1 mg
EUR 125

AC-186

B2980-5 5 mg
EUR 348

AC antibody

70R-1978 50 ug
EUR 467
Description: Rabbit polyclonal AC antibody raised against the N terminal Of Ac

Ac-Pepstatin

5-00564 10mg Ask for price

Ac-Glutamine

5-00569 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-Osu

5-02107 100g Ask for price

Ac-Osu

5-02108 500g Ask for price

mPEG-AC

abx085017-10kDa1g 10 kDa; 1 g
EUR 370

mPEG-AC

abx085017-1kDa1g 1 kDa; 1 g
EUR 356

mPEG-AC

abx085017-20kDa1g 20 kDa; 1 g
EUR 370

mPEG-AC

abx085017-5kDa1g 5 kDa; 1 g
EUR 356

AC-55541

HY-14350 10mM/1mL
EUR 175

AC-55649

HY-108526 5mg
EUR 187

AC 55541

A8669-10 10 mg
EUR 293
Description: AC 55541 is a potent agonist of PAR2 with pEC50 value of 6.7 and functions range from 200 to 1000 nM [1-3].

AC 55541

A8669-25 25 mg
EUR 598
Description: AC 55541 is a potent agonist of PAR2 with pEC50 value of 6.7 and functions range from 200 to 1000 nM [1-3].

AC 55541

A8669-5 5 mg
EUR 196
Description: AC 55541 is a potent agonist of PAR2 with pEC50 value of 6.7 and functions range from 200 to 1000 nM [1-3].

AC 264613

A8670-10 10 mg
EUR 340
Description: AC 264613 is a potent agonist of PAR2 with pEC50 value of 7.5 and potencies range from 30 to 100 nM [1, 2].

AC 264613

A8670-50 50 mg
EUR 1276
Description: AC 264613 is a potent agonist of PAR2 with pEC50 value of 7.5 and potencies range from 30 to 100 nM [1, 2].

AC 45594

B7252-10 10 mg
EUR 226
Description: AC 45594 is a full inverse agonist of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) with an IC50 value of 50~100 nM [1].SF-1 is a constitutively nuclear hormone receptor. It is essential to the development of gonadal and adrenal glands.

AC 45594

B7252-50 50 mg
EUR 689
Description: AC 45594 is a full inverse agonist of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) with an IC50 value of 50~100 nM [1].SF-1 is a constitutively nuclear hormone receptor. It is essential to the development of gonadal and adrenal glands.

AC 261066

B7574-10 10 mg
EUR 373
Description: AC 261066 is an agonist of retinoic acid receptor subtype ? isoform 2 (RAR?2) [1] [2]. It is also called UVI2062 [3]. AC 261066 exhibited good oral bioavailability in rats (Foral= 52%) [4].

AC 261066

B7574-50 50 mg
EUR 1363
Description: AC 261066 is an agonist of retinoic acid receptor subtype ? isoform 2 (RAR?2) [1] [2]. It is also called UVI2062 [3]. AC 261066 exhibited good oral bioavailability in rats (Foral= 52%) [4].

AC 187

B5424-.5 500 ug
EUR 551
Description: Amylin is a 37-amino acid peptide co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic ?-ells. The plasma concentration of amyline increases with nutrient stimuli.

9-AC

B6525-100 100 mg
EUR 145

AC 55649

B7052-10 10 mg
EUR 268
Description: AC 55649 is a potent and selective agonist of retinoic acid receptor ?2 (RAR?2) isotype with a pEC50 value of 6.9 ± 0.4 [1]. RAR?2 is a tumor suppressor gene. In several human neoplasms, it is frequently hypermethylated [2].

AC 55649

B7052-50 50 mg
EUR 973
Description: AC 55649 is a potent and selective agonist of retinoic acid receptor ?2 (RAR?2) isotype with a pEC50 value of 6.9 ± 0.4 [1]. RAR?2 is a tumor suppressor gene. In several human neoplasms, it is frequently hypermethylated [2].

Ac-Lys(Ac)-D-Ala-D-Ala-OH

M-1325.0050 50.0mg
EUR 273
Description: Sum Formula: C16H28N4O6; CAS# [24570-39-6]

Ac-Lys(Ac)-D-Ala-D-Ala-OH

M-1325.0250 250.0mg
EUR 998
Description: Sum Formula: C16H28N4O6; CAS# [24570-39-6]

Ac-Lys(Ac)-D-Ala-D-lactic acid

M-1330.0050 50.0mg
EUR 393
Description: Sum Formula: C16H27N3O7; CAS# [65882-12-4]

Ac-Lys(Ac)-D-Ala-D-lactic acid

M-1330.0250 250.0mg
EUR 1482
Description: Sum Formula: C16H27N3O7; CAS# [65882-12-4]

2'-Ac-Docetaxel

TBQ0005 unit Ask for price

AC Blocking Peptide

33R-3003 100 ug
EUR 180
Description: A synthetic peptide for use as a blocking control in assays to test for specificity of ac antibody, catalog no. 70R-1978

Ac-DEVD-CHO

B1951-1
EUR 142

Ac-DEVD-CHO

B1951-5
EUR 414

Ac-WEHD-AFC

B2214-25
EUR 675

Ac-WEHD-AFC

B2214-5
EUR 207

Ac-WEHD-pNA

B2282-25
EUR 588

Ac-VEID-pNA

B2283-25
EUR 588

Ac-VEID-pNA

B2283-5
EUR 185

Ac-IEPD-AFC

B2526-25
EUR 838

Ac-IEPD-AFC

B2526-5
EUR 251

Ac-IETD-AMC

13411 5 mg
EUR 219

(Ac-ANW)2R110

13455 1 mg
EUR 219

(Ac-KQL)2R110

13465 1 mg
EUR 132

(Ac-PAL)2R110

13467 1 mg
EUR 132

(Ac-WLA)2R110

13468 1 mg
EUR 132

pCMV6- AC- GFP

PVT10701 2 ug
EUR 370

Ac- a-Endorphin

5-00540 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-D-E

5-00553 24 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-GPK-pNA

5-00555 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-IEAR-pNA

5-00559 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-IETD-pNA

5-00560 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-LEHD-pNA

5-00561 4 x 1mg Ask for price

Ac-g-Endorphin

5-00568 4 x 1mg Ask for price

Ac-RYYRIK-NH2

5-00572 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-VEID-pNA

5-00574 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-YVAD-pNA

5-00575 4 x 5mg Ask for price

Ac-HMBA-linker

5-02191 5g Ask for price

Ac-HMBA-linker

5-02192 25g Ask for price

Ac-Ala-OH

5-02327 5g Ask for price

Ac-Ala-OH

5-02328 25g Ask for price

Ac-Ala-OMe

5-02329 25g Ask for price

Ac-Ala-OMe

5-02330 100g Ask for price

Ac-Arg-OH

5-02405 100g Ask for price

Ac-Arg-OH

5-02406 500g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OH

5-02509 5g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OH

5-02510 25g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OBzl

5-02511 5g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OBzl

5-02512 25g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OtBu

5-02513 5g Ask for price

Ac-Asp-OtBu

5-02514 25g Ask for price

Ac-Cys-OH

5-02601 25g Ask for price

Prosopis spp., Senegalia greggi, Vachellia farnesiana and Vachellia rigidula, are common.Mapping this neglectedtropical infection aids in the detection of disease cluster areas, the development of public health strategies for early diagnosis and disease prediction models; this paves the way for more ecological niche etiological agent research.